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The Ottoman Empire inherited the primary school (Sıbyan Mektebi) system from Seljuk and other Turkish states. İn Anatolia, it is seen that the mosques emerged as an institution of the city life that developed as a result of the Seljuks establishing a regular administration. Reading Quran was a compulsory course in these schools. Issues related to religious matters, learning to write and arithmetic were also taught to the students in these schools. Although Sıbyan Schools were serving the needs of Ottoman Society at the beginning, later on they become not functional and not meeting the Society’s needs as they were indifferent to changes and development in social life and as they were refusing to reform the school system. Since the Empire/State faced with the difficulties in reforming this school system, it decided to found pro-innovation Usul-I Cedide Schools instead. It was then when two kinds of primary education systems in the Ottoman Empire emerged. The Ottoman Empire continuously supported these pro-innovation schools whilst neglecting Sıbyan Schools. This inevitably left these schools in bad conditions. Even though this was the case, they continued o survive up until the last period of the Empire. The Turkish Republic founded in 1923 abolished Sıbyan Schools altogether with the law of Tevhid-i Tedrisat dated on the 3rd of March, 1924 which brought about a new educational system to come in action.

Ottoman, School of Sıbyan, Education, Program

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